How to Scale Your Mushroom Cultivation: Transitioning from Hobbyist to Commercial Producer

How to Scale Your Mushroom Cultivation: Transitioning from Hobbyist to Commercial Producer

How to Scale Your Mushroom Cultivation: Transitioning from Hobbyist to Commercial Producer

Introduction: Navigating the Leap from Hobbyist Mushroom Cultivation to Commercial Production

Embarking on the journey from hobbyist mushroom cultivation to commercial production is a thrilling venture that promises not only the expansion of your cultivation capabilities but also the opportunity to transform your passion into a profitable business. This transition, however, requires more than just an upscaling of your current operations; it demands strategic planning, a thorough understanding of the commercial landscape, and a steadfast commitment to quality and efficiency.

Many cultivators start their journey out of a pure love for mycology and the art of growing mushrooms. The transition to commercial production is a significant step that opens up new challenges and opportunities. It involves navigating legal and regulatory frameworks, enhancing cultivation techniques, investing in infrastructure, and developing robust business and marketing strategies. The goal of this guide is to provide you with the knowledge and tools needed to make this transition as smooth and successful as possible.

In the following sections, we will delve into the critical aspects of scaling up your mushroom cultivation operation. From assessing your current position and planning your business to managing finances, understanding legal requirements, and implementing advanced cultivation methods, this guide covers the essential steps for budding commercial mushroom producers. We'll also explore how to market your product, manage quality control, build a team, and, importantly, how to maintain the passion for mycology that got you started on this path.

Whether you dream of supplying gourmet mushrooms to local restaurants, selling medicinal varieties online, or contributing to the growing demand for sustainable and locally produced food, transitioning from hobbyist to commercial producer is a journey worth embarking on. With careful planning, dedication, and a willingness to learn and adapt, you can turn your mushroom cultivation hobby into a thriving business.

Let's begin by evaluating your current cultivation practices and understanding what it takes to move from the garden shed or small grow room to a commercial mushroom farm.
Assessing Your Current Position

Before diving into the commercial mushroom cultivation waters, it's crucial to take stock of where you currently stand. This assessment will not only highlight your strengths and areas for improvement but also help you chart a clear path forward. Here's how to evaluate your current cultivation practices and identify the gap between hobbyist and commercial production.

Evaluate Your Cultivation Expertise

Skills and Knowledge: Reflect on the depth of your mycological knowledge and cultivation skills. Consider areas where you excel and aspects that may require further education or experience.

Cultivation Results: Review the outcomes of your past cultivation efforts. Consistency, yield, and quality of your mushrooms will indicate your readiness for commercial scaling.

Understand Your Resources

Space: Assess the space available for cultivation. Moving to commercial production often requires significantly more space than hobbyist growing.

Equipment: Inventory your current cultivation equipment. Commercial operations may necessitate upgrades or additional tools to handle increased production volume efficiently.

Financial Resources: Evaluate your financial readiness for this transition. Consider savings, potential investments, or loans that could support your expansion.

Identify Market Opportunities

Market Research: Conduct thorough market research to identify demand for specific mushroom varieties in your region, potential competition, and pricing strategies.

Unique Selling Proposition (USP): What sets your mushrooms apart? Identifying your USP is crucial for carving out a niche in the commercial market.

Legal and Regulatory Compliance

Permits and Licenses: Familiarize yourself with the permits, licenses, and regulations applicable to mushroom cultivation in your area. Compliance is key to a successful commercial operation.

Food Safety Standards: Understand the food safety standards and certifications required for selling mushrooms. These may include Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) certification or organic certifications.

Set Realistic Goals

Short-term and Long-term Objectives: Define what success looks like for you in both the short term and long term. Setting realistic goals will help guide your transition strategy and keep you focused.

Conclusion

Assessing your current position is a foundational step in transitioning from hobbyist to commercial mushroom cultivation. It requires a honest look at your skills, resources, and the market, as well as an understanding of the legal landscape. With this information in hand, you can begin to formulate a detailed business plan that addresses these aspects and outlines your path to commercial success. The next section of this guide will delve into the intricacies of business planning for mushroom cultivators, helping you to establish a solid foundation for your commercial venture.

Business Planning for Mushroom Cultivators

Transitioning from hobbyist to commercial mushroom cultivation requires more than just passion and expertise in growing mushrooms; it necessitates a solid business plan. A comprehensive business plan serves as a roadmap for your venture, outlining your business objectives, strategies for achieving them, and the challenges you might face. This section guides you through the essential components of creating a business plan tailored for mushroom cultivation.

Market Research

Understanding Your Market: Begin with thorough market research to identify your target customers, understand the demand for various mushroom types, and analyze your competition. This will help you make informed decisions about which mushroom varieties to cultivate and how to position your products in the market.

Identifying Sales Channels: Explore different sales channels such as farmers' markets, local restaurants, online sales, and wholesale to retailers. Each channel has its requirements, benefits, and challenges.

Financial Planning

Startup Costs: Calculate the initial investment needed to start your commercial cultivation, including costs for space, equipment, seeds or spawn, and any modifications required for growing facilities.

Operating Expenses: Estimate ongoing expenses such as utilities, supplies, labor, and marketing. It's crucial to understand your cost of production to set appropriate prices for your mushrooms.

Revenue Projections: Based on your market research and intended sales channels, project your revenue. Consider factors like seasonal variations in production and market demand.

Break-even Analysis: Determine the point at which your business will start making a profit. This analysis is essential for understanding the viability of your venture.

Operational Strategy

Cultivation Plan: Detail your cultivation methods, including the types of mushrooms you'll grow, your cultivation schedule, and any innovative techniques you plan to employ to increase yield and efficiency.

Quality Control: Outline your strategies for ensuring consistent quality, such as regular monitoring of growing conditions and implementing standards for harvesting and post-harvest handling.

Risk Management: Identify potential risks to your cultivation operation, including market fluctuations, pest and disease outbreaks, and supply chain disruptions. Develop strategies for mitigating these risks.

Legal and Regulatory Compliance

Licensing and Permits: Detail the process for obtaining the necessary licenses and permits to operate your mushroom farm legally.

Insurance: Consider the types of insurance needed to protect your business, such as property insurance, liability insurance, and crop insurance.

Setting Goals and Milestones

Short-term Goals: Set achievable goals for the first year of operation, such as establishing your cultivation facility, securing your first sales contracts, or reaching a specific production target.

Long-term Vision: Define your vision for the future of your business, including potential expansion, diversification of mushroom varieties, or entry into new markets.

Conclusion

A well-crafted business plan is indispensable for transitioning successfully from hobbyist to commercial mushroom cultivation. It not only helps in securing funding and navigating the startup phase but also guides your decision-making process as your business grows. The next steps involve diving deeper into legal and regulatory considerations, ensuring your operation complies with all necessary requirements and is positioned for long-term success.
Legal and Regulatory Considerations

As you transition from hobbyist to commercial mushroom cultivation, navigating the legal and regulatory landscape becomes a critical step. Compliance with local, state, and federal regulations not only ensures your operation is legal but also builds trust with customers and partners. This section outlines key legal and regulatory considerations to help you establish a compliant and sustainable commercial mushroom farm.

Understanding Agricultural Zoning and Land Use Regulations

Zoning Laws: Check local zoning laws to ensure that your land or intended property is zoned for agricultural use or permits mushroom cultivation. Some regions may require special permits or have restrictions that could impact your operation.

Environmental Regulations: Be aware of any environmental regulations that apply to your operation, especially if you plan to engage in outdoor cultivation or large-scale composting. These could include water usage restrictions, waste disposal regulations, and requirements for maintaining local biodiversity.

Obtaining Necessary Permits and Licenses

Business Licenses: Most jurisdictions require businesses to have a general business license to operate legally. The process and fees will vary depending on your location.

Agricultural Permits: Depending on the scale of your operation and the species of mushrooms you plan to cultivate, you may need specific agricultural permits. This is particularly relevant for cultivators of exotic or non-native species.

Food Safety Certifications: If you plan to sell your mushrooms directly to consumers or through retailers, you may be required to comply with food safety standards and obtain certifications such as Good Agricultural Practices (GAP).

Navigating Food Safety Regulations

Compliance with Standards: Familiarize yourself with national and local food safety regulations, such as the FDA's Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) in the United States. These regulations set standards for the safe handling, processing, and packaging of food products.

Inspections and Record-Keeping: Be prepared for periodic inspections by agricultural or health departments and maintain detailed records of your cultivation, harvesting, processing, and sales activities.

Insurance for Mushroom Farms

Liability Insurance: Protects against claims related to product safety, accidents on your property, and other liabilities.

Property Insurance: Covers damage to your cultivation facilities, equipment, and other business properties from natural disasters, theft, or vandalism.

Crop Insurance: While more limited for mushroom cultivators, explore options for insuring your crops against loss due to uncontrollable factors like disease outbreaks or extreme weather conditions.

Conclusion

Navigating the legal and regulatory requirements for commercial mushroom cultivation requires diligence and attention to detail. Ensuring compliance not only avoids legal complications but also establishes the foundation for a sustainable and responsible business. As you solidify your understanding of these legal aspects, the next step involves planning the physical and operational setup of your mushroom farm, focusing on infrastructure, equipment, and the day-to-day workflows that will drive your commercial success.

Taking the time to thoroughly research and adhere to all applicable laws and regulations is an investment in the future of your mushroom cultivation business, setting the stage for growth and long-term viability in the competitive agricultural market.
Scaling Up Cultivation Techniques

Transitioning to commercial production requires not only an expansion in scale but also an enhancement of your mushroom cultivation techniques. Efficiency, consistency, and quality become paramount as you aim to meet increased demand. This section focuses on adapting and scaling up your cultivation practices to support a commercial operation, ensuring you can produce high-quality mushrooms at a volume that meets market needs.

Expanding Your Growing Space

Choosing the Right Facility: Consider whether you will expand your current space or move to a new location. Factors to consider include climate control, space for scaling up, and proximity to markets.

Designing for Efficiency: Layout your growing space to maximize efficiency in workflow, including preparation, inoculation, cultivation, and harvesting areas. Consider the logistics of moving materials and products through the space.

Advanced Cultivation Methods

Bulk Substrate Cultivation: Moving to bulk substrate methods can significantly increase your production volume. Techniques such as using larger bags, trays, or monotubs allow for more extensive colonization and higher yields.

Automated Environmental Controls: Implementing automated systems for monitoring and controlling temperature, humidity, and CO2 levels can help maintain optimal growing conditions and reduce labor costs.

Strain Selection for Commercial Production: Choose mushroom strains not only for their market demand but also for their growth characteristics, yield potential, and suitability for your cultivation environment.

Streamlining Production Processes

Standardizing Procedures: Develop standard operating procedures (SOPs) for all aspects of your operation, from substrate preparation to packaging. SOPs ensure consistency and quality in your products.

Labor Management: As you scale up, you may need to hire additional help. Training staff in your SOPs and ensuring they understand the importance of cleanliness and efficiency is crucial.

Leveraging Technology for Scalability
Data Management Systems: Utilize software for tracking production, inventory, sales, and customer relationships. Accurate data helps in making informed decisions about scaling your operation.

Innovative Cultivation Technologies: Explore the use of new technologies, such as vertical farming systems or automated harvesting tools, to increase your operation's efficiency and yield.

Ensuring Quality and Sustainability

Quality Control Measures: Implement measures to ensure the quality of your mushrooms, including regular checks for contamination, proper handling and storage practices, and feedback loops for continuous improvement.

Sustainability Practices: Incorporate sustainable practices into your operation, such as using renewable energy sources, recycling waste, and minimizing water use, to reduce your environmental impact and appeal to eco-conscious consumers.

Conclusion

Scaling up your mushroom cultivation techniques for commercial production involves careful planning, investment in infrastructure and technology, and a commitment to quality and efficiency. By expanding your growing space thoughtfully, adopting advanced cultivation methods, and leveraging technology, you can significantly increase your production volume while maintaining the high-quality mushrooms that will set your business apart in the market. As you refine your cultivation practices and scale your operation, the next steps involve managing the financial aspects of your business, from budgeting and funding to pricing strategies, to ensure your venture's profitability and sustainability.

Financial Management and Funding Options

As you scale your mushroom cultivation from a hobbyist to a commercial operation, effective financial management becomes crucial. This section will guide you through budgeting, understanding your costs, exploring funding options, and setting prices for your products to ensure the financial health and growth of your business.

Budgeting for Growth

Develop a Comprehensive Budget: Include all anticipated costs, such as initial investments in equipment and facilities, ongoing operational expenses, labor, marketing, and contingencies. Accurate budgeting is essential for planning and tracking your financial performance.

Monitor Cash Flow: Regularly review your cash flow, the movement of money in and out of your business. Managing cash flow effectively ensures you can cover operational expenses and invest in growth opportunities.

Understanding and Managing Costs

Fixed vs. Variable Costs: Distinguish between fixed costs (e.g., rent, salaries) that do not change with production levels and variable costs (e.g., substrate materials, utilities) that do. This understanding is critical for pricing and profitability analysis.

Cost Reduction Strategies: Identify areas where costs can be reduced without compromising quality. Bulk purchasing, energy-efficient technologies, and process optimization can help lower production costs.

Exploring Funding Options

Self-Financing: Many cultivators start with personal savings or reinvest profits from their hobbyist operations. While this approach minimizes debt, it may limit the speed of scaling.

Loans: Agricultural or small business loans from banks or credit unions can provide significant funding but require a solid business plan and often collateral.

Grants: Look for agricultural grants offered by government agencies or private foundations. These do not need to be repaid but can be competitive and restrictive in use.

Investors: Angel investors or venture capitalists can offer substantial funding in exchange for equity in your business. This route requires a compelling business case and a clear path to profitability.

Setting Prices for Your Products

Cost-Plus Pricing: Calculate the total cost of production (including a markup for profit) to set prices. This method ensures you cover costs and achieve a profit margin.

Market-Based Pricing: Consider what the market will bear, pricing competitively while highlighting the unique qualities of your mushrooms that may justify a premium price.

Value-Based Pricing: Price products based on the perceived value to the customer. Specialty or medicinal mushrooms, for example, may command higher prices due to their health benefits.

Conclusion

Effective financial management and securing the right funding are pivotal for transitioning successfully to commercial mushroom cultivation. By carefully planning your budget, managing costs, exploring various funding options, and strategically setting your prices, you can build a financially sustainable business poised for growth. The financial health of your operation is as crucial as the health of your mushrooms, requiring diligent attention and smart strategies to ensure success in the competitive marketplace.

As you solidify your financial foundation, the next steps involve marketing your mushrooms to reach your target audience, build your brand, and grow your customer base, ensuring the long-term success of your commercial cultivation venture.
Marketing and Sales Strategies

For commercial mushroom cultivators, developing effective marketing and sales strategies is essential to attract customers, build brand awareness, and drive sales. As you transition from hobbyist to commercial production, understanding how to market your mushrooms and identify the most lucrative sales channels becomes paramount. This section offers guidance on crafting a marketing plan and selecting sales channels that align with your business goals.

Developing a Marketing Plan

Identify Your Target Market: Understand who your customers are, whether they're gourmet chefs, health-conscious consumers, local grocery stores, or others. Tailoring your marketing efforts to your target audience increases effectiveness.

Unique Selling Proposition (USP): Highlight what makes your mushrooms stand out. This could be their organic status, unique varieties, local sourcing, or any other aspect that differentiates you from competitors.

Digital Marketing: Utilize online platforms to reach a wider audience. This includes creating a professional website, engaging on social media, and considering online advertising. Content marketing, through blogs or videos about mushroom cultivation and recipes, can also engage potential customers.

Local Community Engagement: Participate in local farmers' markets, food festivals, and other community events. This not only helps in selling your products but also builds your brand locally.

Selecting Sales Channels

Direct to Consumer (D2C): Selling directly to consumers, either online or through farmers' markets, offers higher margins and direct feedback from your customers.

Wholesale to Retailers: Partnering with local grocery stores, health food stores, or specialty shops can provide consistent sales volumes but usually at lower margins.

Restaurants and Chefs: Building relationships with chefs and restaurants that value high-quality, locally-sourced ingredients can be a lucrative channel, particularly for gourmet or exotic mushrooms.

Online Marketplaces: Utilizing online platforms specialized in local or specialty foods can help you reach customers beyond your immediate geographic area.

Building Your Brand

Logo and Packaging: Invest in professional branding, including a memorable logo and packaging that reflects the quality and sustainability of your products.

Customer Relationships: Foster strong relationships with your customers through excellent customer service, engagement on social media, and possibly a loyalty program.

Storytelling: Share your journey from hobbyist to commercial cultivator, your cultivation practices, and your commitment to quality and sustainability. Stories resonate with customers and can set your brand apart.

Conclusion

Effective marketing and strategic sales channel selection are critical for the success of your commercial mushroom cultivation business. By understanding your target market, leveraging both digital and local community channels, and building a strong brand, you can attract and retain customers, driving the growth of your business. As you implement these strategies, remember that flexibility and responsiveness to market feedback are key. Continuously refine your marketing and sales approaches based on what works best for your products and your customers, ensuring long-term success in the competitive mushroom market.

The journey from hobbyist to commercial mushroom cultivator is filled with challenges and opportunities. By focusing on strategic planning, legal compliance, cultivation techniques, financial management, and marketing, you can build a thriving business that reflects your passion for mycology and contributes to the growing demand for high-quality mushrooms.

Quality Control and Product Consistency

Ensuring the highest quality and consistency of your mushrooms is paramount as you transition to commercial production. Quality control measures not only satisfy customer expectations but also reinforce your brand's reputation in the marketplace. Implementing a comprehensive quality control program can help you maintain the integrity of your products, reduce waste, and increase customer loyalty. This section outlines strategies for establishing and maintaining quality control and product consistency in commercial mushroom cultivation.

Establishing Quality Standards

Develop Clear Quality Criteria: Define what constitutes high-quality mushrooms in terms of size, color, texture, and absence of pests or diseases. These criteria should be aligned with customer expectations and market standards.

Implement Routine Inspections: Regularly inspect your mushrooms at different stages of growth, harvest, and post-harvest processing. Early detection of quality issues allows for timely intervention.

Managing Cultivation Practices

Consistent Substrate Quality: Ensure that the substrate used for cultivation is consistently prepared with the same composition and moisture content to promote uniform growth conditions.

Environmental Control: Precisely managing temperature, humidity, and ventilation within the growing area supports consistent mycelial development and fruiting body formation.

Contamination Prevention: Implement strict sanitation protocols for all cultivation processes to minimize the risk of contamination, which can significantly impact product quality.

Post-Harvest Handling

Harvesting Practices: Train staff on proper harvesting techniques to avoid damaging the mushrooms, ensuring they meet the established quality criteria.

Storage Conditions: Maintain optimal storage conditions to preserve the freshness and extend the shelf life of harvested mushrooms. This includes controlling temperature, humidity, and handling practices during storage and transportation.

Packaging: Use packaging materials and methods that protect the mushrooms from damage and contamination while also being appealing to consumers.

Continuous Improvement

Feedback Loop: Establish a system for collecting and analyzing feedback from customers and sales channels regarding the quality of your mushrooms. Use this feedback to make continuous improvements.

Employee Training: Regularly train employees on quality control standards, cultivation practices, and handling procedures to ensure everyone is contributing to the maintenance of product quality.

Conclusion

Quality control and product consistency are critical to the success of a commercial mushroom operation. By establishing clear quality standards, managing cultivation practices effectively, ensuring proper post-harvest handling, and embracing a culture of continuous improvement, you can achieve a consistent output that meets customer expectations. This commitment to quality not only builds trust and loyalty among your customer base but also sets your business apart in the competitive marketplace. As you implement these quality control measures, remember that the goal is not just to meet the minimum standards but to exceed them, creating a superior product that reflects the care and expertise behind your brand.

The journey to commercial mushroom cultivation is complex and rewarding, offering the opportunity to share your passion for mushrooms with a wider audience. By focusing on quality at every step, you ensure that your mushrooms are not only a reflection of your dedication but also a testament to the excellence that customers can expect from your business.
Building a Team

As your mushroom cultivation operation expands from hobbyist to commercial scale, one of the most critical steps is building a team that can support and sustain this growth. The right team not only enhances productivity but also infuses your operation with diverse skills and perspectives. This section covers strategies for hiring, training, and managing staff effectively to ensure the success of your commercial mushroom farm.

Identifying Your Staffing Needs

Assess Roles and Responsibilities: Start by identifying the key roles required to run your operation efficiently. This might include cultivation specialists, harvesters, packers, sales personnel, and administrative support.

Create Detailed Job Descriptions: For each role, develop a job description that outlines responsibilities, required skills, and qualifications. Clear job descriptions help attract suitable candidates and set expectations from the outset.

Hiring Process

Recruitment: Utilize various channels to reach potential candidates, including job boards, social media, local community boards, and agricultural programs. Networking within the mushroom cultivation community can also uncover talented individuals passionate about mycology.

Selection Criteria: Beyond technical skills and experience, consider candidates' fit with your company culture, their adaptability, and their enthusiasm for mushroom cultivation. Personality and work ethic often outweigh experience for roles that can be trained.

Training and Development

Onboarding Program: Implement a comprehensive onboarding program that introduces new hires to your cultivation methods, company policies, and quality standards. Proper onboarding ensures everyone starts on the same footing and understands their role in achieving the company's objectives.

Ongoing Training: Provide ongoing training opportunities to develop your team's skills further. This could include workshops on advanced cultivation techniques, leadership development for team leads, or cross-training to enhance versatility within your operation.

Team Management and Culture

Foster a Positive Work Environment: Cultivate a company culture that values open communication, collaboration, and mutual respect. A positive work environment boosts morale and productivity, reducing turnover.

Incentives and Recognition: Implement a system of incentives and recognition to reward hard work and achievements. Acknowledging individual and team contributions fosters a sense of ownership and pride in their work.

Regular Feedback: Conduct regular performance reviews and provide constructive feedback. Open dialogue about performance and career development helps staff grow and aligns their goals with those of the company.

Conclusion

Building a dedicated and skilled team is essential for transitioning successfully from hobbyist to commercial mushroom cultivation. By carefully selecting, training, and managing your staff, you create a solid foundation for your operation's growth and sustainability. Remember, the strength of your team directly influences the quality of your mushrooms, the efficiency of your operation, and ultimately, the success of your business. As you invest in your team, you're investing in the future of your mushroom farm, ensuring it can thrive and adapt in the ever-evolving world of commercial agriculture.

Navigating the Path to Commercial Success

Making the transition from a hobbyist to a commercial mushroom cultivator is an ambitious journey, filled with challenges but also ripe with opportunities. As you scale up your operations, it's crucial to keep in mind that success in the commercial realm requires more than just an understanding of mushroom cultivation. It demands a holistic approach that encompasses business acumen, legal compliance, financial savvy, marketing strategies, and a commitment to quality and sustainability. This concluding section offers final thoughts and encouragement for aspiring commercial mushroom cultivators.

Embrace Continuous Learning

The field of mushroom cultivation is dynamic, with new techniques, technologies, and market trends continually emerging. Stay informed and adaptable, seeking out educational resources, attending workshops, and connecting with other cultivators to share knowledge and experiences.

Lean on the Community

The mushroom cultivation community is a vast network of passionate individuals who are generally open to sharing insights and advice. Engage with local and online mycology groups, participate in forums, and consider partnerships that can enhance your operation's visibility and viability.

Prioritize Sustainability

As demand for sustainably produced food grows, incorporating eco-friendly practices into your cultivation and business operations can set you apart in the market. From water conservation and renewable energy use to organic cultivation methods, sustainability can be a significant selling point for your mushrooms.

Focus on Quality and Innovation

In the competitive landscape of commercial mushroom cultivation, consistently producing high-quality mushrooms and exploring innovative cultivation techniques can help you build a loyal customer base and sustain long-term success.

Prepare for Ups and Downs

Like any agricultural venture, mushroom cultivation can be unpredictable. Market demands fluctuate, crops may fail, and unexpected challenges will arise. Resilience and flexibility are key to navigating these ups and downs.

Celebrate Your Achievements

Transitioning to commercial mushroom cultivation is a significant achievement in itself. Take time to celebrate the milestones you reach and the progress you make, no matter how small they may seem.

Conclusion

The journey from hobbyist to commercial mushroom cultivator is one of transformation, not just for your cultivation practice but for you as an entrepreneur. It's a path that requires dedication, hard work, and a willingness to learn and adapt. But the rewards—building a business around your passion, contributing to food sustainability, and potentially transforming the way people think about and consume mushrooms—are immeasurable.

As you embark on this exciting venture, remember that success isn't just measured in yields and profit margins. It's also found in the lessons learned, the community built, and the positive impact you make on the environment and society. Here's to your success as a commercial mushroom cultivator. May your mushrooms flourish, and may your business thrive in the fertile ground of your efforts and dreams.

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